U.S. shale operators are pushing fracking technology to achieve higher oil output from fewer wells. It an attempt to streamline operations and continue in business while oil prices improve fracturing technologies in shale plays are moving to fifty stage frac jobs, fifteen-foot cluster spacing and using over 2,000 pounds of proppant per foot. The changes mean drillers will be able to increase production rapidly when oil prices recover. New technologies and new twists on old technologies, like carbon dioxide are being evaluated for wells that already been hydraulically fractured. Pioneer Natural Resources COO, Tim Dove said, "We have got to keep moving ahead in terms of our knowledge base so that when things improve we can hit it with all cylinders."