OPEC lost market share to unconventional oil producers in the U.S. early in 2014 and their response was to flood the market, greatly reduce the price of oil and put shale producers out of business. The assumption is that fracking was the main cause for high production costs. An editorial for Forbes, Tim Worstall, suggests that OPEC may have read the market wrong. Yes, shale oil sands in Canada are expensive, but other shale oil developers may not be buckling under to OPEC pressure. "If true, it's something of a problem for OPEC’s strategy."